Mencius was born in 372 B.C. and died in 289 B.C. at the age of 84. Mencius was another representative of Confucianism after Confucius. He was worshipped as the Second Sage in ancient China. He was an outstanding thinker and educator in the Warring States Period.
“Benevolent government” was the quintessence of Mencius’ political ideas. “ His idea that “the people are the foundation of a nation” provided a theoretical basis for reformers and revolutionaries in later ages.
The structures of our(China) society
With a very sharp structure (as in China) there is a very large power distance and communication gap (little interaction) between people at the top and people at the bottom.
People at lower levels are not used to－and not supposed to－openly challenge or disagree with people above them / at the top (authority figures, such as teacher, superiors, etc.). Information normally follows a straight downward line (giving orders to immediate subordinates), or a straight upward line (supporting to + getting approval from an immediate superior).
Comparing with the tipical European country:
A very flat type of structure, with a small power distance and communication gap where people are seen as equals (equally worth), despite different (higher or lower) work position in society. There is a small “under-class group” －the immigrants － who have little access to the higher spheres of society.
Communication flows quite freely in all directions and people are grown up in society where it is okay － and expected from you － that you speak up and express your own opinion & feelings about things to “authority” and people in senior positions, such as the boss, your teacher, etc. the line and style of communication is normally quite informal.
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